Applications of 3-dimensional cell culture in precision medicine
Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture techniques allow cells to be grown outside the organism and interact with each other like they would in vivo. Organoids, spheroids, or tumoroids mimic the in vivo tissue environment and processes, including cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell
An introduction to the human immune system
The immune system is a host defense system and comprises many biological elements ranging from white blood cells to entire organs and many complex biological processes. The function of the immune system is to protect the host from pathogens and
How does your immune system protect you?
The immune system has a vital role in defending the body from harmful substances, germs, and thus infections. It is made up of a complex network of cells, chemicals, tissues, and organs that recognize invaders and mount an immune response