Some common tissue-specific organoids

Researchers have optimized methods to generate physiologically relevant organoid models for many organs.

Here are some examples of commonly used tissue-specific organoids:

Intestinal organoids

In 2009, Sato et al. isolated individual Lgr5+ stem cells from small intestinal crypts of adult mice and were able to grow and maintain in 3D cultures regenerating the intestinal. The small intestine, large intestine, and Intestinal crypts consist of a multicellular epithelium with distinct morphological structures. Intestinal organoid cultures are used to study the differences between normal and diseased physiology. Intestinal organoids generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been used as advanced models to study gastrointestinal developmental biology, drug toxicity, and personalized therapy applications (1).

Liver organoids

The liver is the primary organ system to metabolize drugs and detoxification. Liver organoids, derived from primary tissue or induced pluripotent stem cells, have emerged as more relevant models to recapitulate the in vivo toxicity of drugs in human patients compared to traditional animal models (2).

Lung organoids

The use of lung organoids in disease modeling research grew rapidly in 2009 as lung organoids are excellent models for a wide range of basic and translational investigations, including drug and toxicity testing and genetic screening (3)

Brain organoids

ESCs and iPSCs-derived 3D brain organoid protocols were first published in 2009 demonstrating how pluripotent stem cells could differentiate into cerebral organoids. Cerebral organoids have been used to study brain development distinctions and the developmental physiology of normal and diseased brain regions. iPSC-derived organoids have great potential to be used in drug discovery and modeling of neurodegenerative disease and viral brain infection (4).


1. Wallach TE, Bayrer JR. Intestinal Organoids: New Frontiers in the Study of Intestinal Disease and Physiology. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Feb;64(2):180-185. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001411. PMID: 27632431; PMCID: PMC5250540.

2. Zhu X, Zhang B, He Y, Bao J. Liver Organoids: Formation Strategies and Biomedical Applications. Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2021 Aug;18(4):573-585. doi: 10.1007/s13770-021-00357-w. Epub 2021 Jun 16. PMID: 34132985; PMCID: PMC8325737.

3. Demchenko A, Lavrov A, Smirnikhina S. Lung organoids: current strategies for generation and transplantation. Cell Tissue Res. 2022 Dec;390(3):317-333. doi: 10.1007/s00441-022-03686-x. Epub 2022 Sep 30. PMID: 36178558; PMCID: PMC9522545.

4. Chen H, Jin X, Li T, Ye Z. Brain organoids: Establishment and application. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 Nov 23;10:1029873. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2022.1029873. PMID: 36506083; PMCID: PMC9726712.