Magnetic 3D bioprinting: Methods and Techniques

Magnetic 3D bioprinting uses magnetic fields to manipulate the positioning of magnetic nanoparticles or magnetized cells during the 3D printing process.

The process of magnetic 3D bioprinting involves the following steps (1,2):

1. Preparing the magnetic particles or cells: Magnetic particles or cells are coated with a biocompatible material to prevent any adverse reactions with the biological environment. The particles can be also functionalized with specific biological molecules, such as proteins or antibodies.

2. Loading the magnetic particles into the printing ink: The magnetic particles are mixed with a hydrogel or other printing ink material to create a bio ink which is further loaded into the printer cartridge for printing.

3. Printing the 3D structure: The printer uses magnetic fields to manipulate the magnetic particles or cells within the bioink to create a 3D structure. The magnetic fields are generated by a set of electromagnets placed around the printer. These magnets create a specific pattern or arrangement of magnetic particles.

4. Bioink crosslinking: after printing the 3D structure, the bioink is crosslinked to stabilize the 3D structure. This can be achieved by exposing the printed structure to UV light or by adding a crosslinking agent to the bioink.

5. Culturing and maturation: The last step is the incubation ogf the printed structure in a suitable culture medium to allow cells to grow and mature into a functional tissue-like structure. This step can take several days or weeks depending on the complexity and size of the printed structure.

Magnetic 3D bioprinting is a complex and multi-step process that requires careful optimization of various parameters to achieve the desired 3D structure with functional properties.


1. Li J, Chen M, Fan X, Zhou H. Recent advances in bioprinting techniques: approaches, applications and future prospects. J Transl Med. 2016 Sep 20;14:271. doi: 10.1186/s12967-016-1028-0. PMID: 27645770; PMCID: PMC5028995.

2. Souza GR, Molina JR, Raphael RM, Ozawa MG, Stark DJ, Levin CS, Bronk LF, Ananta JS, Mandelin J, Georgescu MM, Bankson JA, Gelovani JG, Killian TC, Arap W, Pasqualini R. Three-dimensional tissue culture based on magnetic cell levitation. Nat Nanotechnol. 2010 Apr;5(4):291-6. doi: 10.1038/nnano.2010.23. Epub 2010 Mar 14. PMID: 20228788; PMCID: PMC4487889