Catalysis refers to a process in which the rate and/or the outcome of a reaction is influenced by the presence of a substance called the catalyst. The catalyst is not used up during the reaction and is subsequently removed to prevent it from being an impurity in the final product.


Carbon a chemical element with atomic number 6, It is nonmetallic and tetravalent. It is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe in terms of mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. It is the second most abundant element in the human body after oxygen.


A cell is the functional basic unit of life.


In Chemistry, a chemical compound is composed of two or more chemical elements.


Cell culture refers to the method where cells are cultivated under controlled conditions, outside of their natural environment. Cells of interest are isolated from living tissue and carefully maintained under controlled conditions in an incubator.


Cytokines are proteins made by certain immune and non-immune cells and can either stimulate the immune system or slow it down. Cytokines can also be artificially produced and used as drugs to help the body fight cancer, infections, and other diseases.


Cytotoxicity is the ability of a substance to kill a cell